Studies show that though every child has some in-built traits, abilities and temperament, the surrounding atmosphere they get, plays a very important role in their development. Parents are the most important factor in creating a good surrounding atmosphere for a child. That means parents, their behavior, their approach towards child also have an important role to play in child development.
Children interact constantly during their growing age with surrounding atmosphere and this ‘transaction’ with atmosphere decides more or less development of in-built characteristics of a child. A child will possess his full potential if his interactions with atmosphere are of right intensity, quality and frequency.
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Want to know how it works? Studies of many years have revealed that the patterns on our fingers are closely related to our genetic compositions and nervous system and carry important information about our in built qualities and characteristics. GLYPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT extracts vital information of the child’s brain through finger prints, which is then used to figure out a child’s inborn talent. And once you know what talent your child possesses, you can easily select a correct career for him.
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So when Brain-Mark is there, say bye-bye to all your worries reharding your children’s future, because at Brain-Mark, we care for them just like you care. Our Mission is to transform today’s children into future Genius with the help of new age technology, proven scientific research, expert guidance and in-depth research we possess in the arena of Child Development.Here are some more details you may want to know regarding Child Development.
Adolescence is a very crucial stage in the process of child development, as this is the final step in the development process for a child before entering into adulthood. The age between 13 to 18 year, is the adolescence age in the life of a child.
Parents have to do the job of a perfect caretaker for their child as he grows on to 12-13 years providing lot of advices, saying dos’ and don’ts etc. Parents can’t advise their children entering in the stage of adolescence how to talk with other teenagers! So understanding the children in their adolescence stage seems quite difficult for many – including parents, neighbors and teachers according to studies. Parents may end up adopting same style of caretaking or behaving which was adopted by their parents when they were in childhood, but it might not work as those were different times.
Adolescence is such a period in the child development process during which, children i.e. adolescents have to decide about their future line. Adolescents will start taking their decisions independently which is one of the most things they do. For example they will decide on their own regarding making friendships without guidance or help of parents. What to buy from the money they have is decided by adolescents without seeking any help from parents. Obviously, these independent decision making, will create some distance between adolescents and their parents, but at the same time it is not that parents can’t take care of their loved ones in this stage.
Studies suggest that the best thing parents can do as ‘care taking step’ for adolescents is to let them learn through their decisions and mistakes.
Teachers, relatives and neighbors can play good role models for adolescents, as adolescents can learn lot of things from them, observing them, interacting with them. If adolescents want to spend time alone, it’s ok – parents need not to bother about it. This is the general process of child development, as day dreaming for long hours about future is one of the quite normal.
Piaget studies and formulations regarding intellectual development of children focus on the growth of brain. According to the study, human brain fully develops only in late adolescence. Sometimes full development of brain may occur in early adulthood that is even after adolescence stage in case of males. Parents sometimes expect their children to behave or respond like adults but children cannot be little adults. They can only start thinking as an adult after reaching the age of 15.
Intellectual development includes sections like “language development”,”cognitive development”, “social-emotional development”,”temperament of children”.
Studies have found a typical pattern of language development in children. Many children can develop in more or less extent, depending on some their abilities or surrounding atmosphere, but going through this pattern of language development will help you understand, as a responsible parent judging your own expectations from your child. Over expectations can put children under a lot of pressure, which can be hazardous for their development and future. If you find significant lacking in your child’s linguistic development compared to these studies you can take some clinical steps with our expert’s help at Brain-Mark, to bring your child at appropriate level of development.
Here are some general signs of language development, age wise, based on years of studies by specialists of the field –
- 6 months: Vocal development with intonations starts in children. Child responds to his name and angry and friendly tones. He turns his head and eyes in response to human voices.
- 12 months: Child at this age can use one or more words or fragment of a word with appropriate meaning. He understands the simple vocal or physical instructions.
- 18 months: Vocabulary level of child in this age is of 15-20 words, which are mostly nouns. He can repeat one or more than one word.
- 24 months: Child develops ability to indentify some objects of his surroundings by name. His vocabulary rises to nearly 150-200 words and can combine nearly 1.2 words to make a sentence but with poor fluency and rhythm. His control on volume and pitch of voice stays largely poor in this age.
- 36 months: Child may achieve vocabulary level of 900-1000 words and can say three word sentences quite perfectly. He can identify main parts of body though not by names. He can give right information about his sex, name and age. He though understands the simple questions about surroundings and normal activities, don’t expect a perfect answer from him at this age.
- 48 months: Child is able to know names of familiar animals and can identify one or more colors by name. He can understand and show size by saying over or under. If four digits are said slowly he can repeat the digits at this age. He verbalizes his activities highly and repeats words, phrases or sounds in his talks extensively.
- 60 months: A child can count up to 10 digits according to studies of language development in children. He should know common opposites like hard-soft, high-low, big-little; heavy-light etched has the ability now to repeat a sentence of at least nine words at this age. Grammatical mistakes are made less and common timing understanding of morning, afternoon, evening, night gets developed at this age. He understands day and time signs like today, yesterday, tomorrow, later, before etc in quite good manner.
- 6 years: Child gets ability to tell sentence with complete meaning at this age which is easily understandable. Normal description power develops in him so as he can tell a short story about a picture making relationships between objects and happenings.
There are number of stages of cognitive development in children according to widely trusted study of Piaget.
Piaget calls 0-24 months of period of child as Sensory motor period, 2-7 years as preoperational period, and 7-12 years as Period of Concrete Operations while 12 and above years as period of formal operations.
Cognitive Development process during 0-24 months
- 0-2 months: Simple reflexive stage of activities like grasping and sucking
- 2-4 months: This is the period of Primary Circular Reactions. Child responses with repetitive stereotyped activities such as opening and closing of fingers.
- 4-8 months: This period is called Secondary Circular Reactions while period of 8-12 months is co-ordination of Secondary Reactions according to Piaget. Period of 12-18 months is called Tertiary Circular reactions as baby discovers new ways for the same goal. For Example, she will pull a pillow towards her to occupy the toy put on it.
- 18-24 months: In this period, a child tends to invent new means through metal combination which suggests that an internal representational system has been now developed in the child. That means before actually responding for solving a problem across, child will symbolize it.
Cognitive Development Process during 2-7 years – Pre-operational period
This period has been further divided in to two phases – Pre-operational phase of 2-4 years and Intuitive phase of 4-7 years.
During Pre-operational phase of 2-4 years, child prefers to go more verbal to represent a thought but it is mostly self-centric with words me, my and mine. He can think about an object, though it is not presented through language.
Intuitive phase of 4-7 years makes child more social in approach rather than self-centric. An instinct gets developed in child to grasp logical concepts in some areas. Child though tends to see only one side of an object rather than object as whole. So absence of judgment is still there while perception dominates in his response.
Cognitive development process during 7-12 years – Period of Concrete Operations.
Study suggests that child‘s brain is developed up to the level now that he can think logically and in organized manner. Principle of conversation has been grasped by him now who reflects in his ability to put objects in logical sequence and handling of multiple classification tasks. He can sort out objects more categorically rather than just building a perception about it. For example, he will describe the object as ‘animal’ or ‘number’ rather than putting it on a larger spectrum of color.
Social – Emotional Development:
The model work called ‘Eight stages of man’ of 1956 by psychiatrist Erik Erikson is counted more trustworthy in understanding the social-emotional development in child. He has described each stage as ‘psychosocial crisis’ and according to it, previous stage has to be successfully achieved before next stage is addressed. It is just like an architectural work in which foundation work has to be done properly for the strength full first floor and so on. The eight stages are discussed as under
Stage 1: Learning Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
This is the early learning period of child mostly in his age of one or two years during which he develops trust in self depending on the caring parents who handle and nurture the child quite healthily .Child in such initial environment feels secured .In absence of such caring atmosphere, child develops insecurity in self.
Stage 2: Learning Autonomy versus Shame
This development or psychosocial crisis according to Erikson happens mostly I child between ages of 18 months to 4 years. Child with caring parents and atmosphere starts feeling proud about his being and not ashamed. A new found control and self-assurance develops in him which leads him towards a kind of autonomy. This development may though in early stages generate some rigidness in child which may result in answer ‘NO’ quite often from him.
Stage 3: Learning Initiative versus Guilt
This development occurs in child during his later preschool years which Erikson calls ‘play age’. Child with helping environment learns skills of imagination. With more participation in active play he attempts widening spectrum of his skills. Child under fine-nurturing atmosphere mostly provided by parents starts cooperating with others, tends to follow and lead also. Fear and guilt is developed in child growing under unhealthy atmosphere during this age.
Stage 4: Industry versus Inferiority
Child gets Socio-Emotional development of this stage in his ‘school age’ according to Erikson. Child in caring environment learns some formal skills like rules following, teamwork etc. If child has successfully passed previous three stages, he easily becomes more independent and industrious in nature during this age. But child growing in opposite atmosphere develops mistrust in him towards life which may result in development of inferiority complex in him.
Stage 5: Learning Identity
Socio-Emotional developments at this stage occur in child during his adolescence , in age between 13 to nearly 20.He knows now his identity with much surety and can give satisfactory answer of question – Who am I ?.But at the same time some doubts and questions regarding self keep rolling in minds during this age according to Erikson.
During well –nurtured early phase of adolescence, a self-certainty develops in young person. He looks out for achievements due to development of time perspective in him. A clear gender identity –manhood or womanhood – develops in later part of adolescence according to Erikson. A set of ideals develops in a young person which is socially desirable.
Stage 6: Learning Intimacy versus Isolation
Under Socio-Emotional development of this stage, a well-nurtured adolescent eagerly searches out for a relation who is very intimate in nature, be it a friendship or love, but poor completion of previous stages may end in tendency of isolation than desiring intimacy according to Erikson.
Stage 7: Generativity versus Self-Absorption
Young person believes more in productivity after becoming adult which are the developments under this stage. Perception of creativity gets more demanding in this age. Previously he was being cared by others but now he wants to generate on his own.
Stage 8: Integrity
If a person has overcome the challenges of previous seven stages he is now more confident towards life daring for new things. Sense of integrity is finally developed in him as the outcome of successful previous stages. He possesses a well-define.
Temperament and Child Personality:
Personality of a child is shaped by his in-built temperament traits. Interaction of these traits with surrounding environment creates the personality of a child. How these traits get fit in the surrounding environment and how people receive them is a decisive factor for how child sees himself and world sees him and that becomes his personality. So temperament based on those in-built traits is the main factor to decide personality of the child.
When temperament of a child is compatible with expectations and demands of environment and people, ‘goodness-of-fit’ is achieved, that means child is perfectly fit for that atmosphere or child has got the right environment. But when it is not compatible, ‘personality conflict’ occurs.
The 9 Temperament Traits : So now after going through these lines and words of temperament and child personality, you will definitely be eager to know whether there are any known or in-general temperament traits in the children? SO, here is the answer. According to widely trusted child development studies of Doctor Chess and Thomas, 9 temperament traits have been identified in the children.
- Activity level: This is general active level, an idle pace of a child to perform all activities including routine and special. You would have observed that some children just sit and keep watching or some children are always on their toes, ready to go always. Some children just like quiet activities which needs less amount of energy. Children with high activity level or with high energy level can be a better sportsman. Careers demanding high energy level are for this type of children.
- Distractibility: This trait refers to the concentration level of the child, how good he is in paying attention in ongoing task or activity. For example while drinking bottle if child gets easily distracted by interferences like sounds or lights, then his concentration level is said to be low and distractibility factor is high. Such children easily go out of track while doing some routine work or activity.
- Intensity: It determines the energy level of response of child whether positive or negative. If a child responses loud to even some very regular or minor events, his intensity level is said to be high way of expressing happiness or upset felt will be quite dramatically in the case of such children. Intense children are more likely to get what they want and they may possess emotions which are deeper and more delightful, generally not experienced by others. Such children can have a good career in arts.
- Regularity: This trait shows how one is regular in biological functions like sleep or appetite .Does child get hungry at predictable time or is regular with his sleeping hours? If a child has grown up with irregular biological functioning, he can be quite adjustable for travelling or can do well in career with irregular working hours.
- Sensory Threshold: This trait decides child’s sensitiveness towards physical stimuli. Each child has different level of response to stimulations like sound, tastes, touch, temperature, changes. He may respond positively or negatively to particular sounds. He may like the touch of some type of cloths while he finds some cloths uncomfortable. Some children are very choosy about food while some tend to eat whatever comes. If individual is highly sensitive he may have a good future in dramatics or in other creative fields.
- Approach / Withdrawal: It is related to child’s ability to tackle new situations or new people. Does he tend to welcome new situations or he feels hesitance or tends to be resistant in new situations or with new people and things ? Children with hesitant approach to new situations less likely to get easily mixed with new people and may think twice before act during new situations in their adolescence.
- Adaptability: This trait decides the ability of child to transit from one activity to another. If he finds it difficult to settle in new situations, it shows that the individual is less adaptive. Such children will take more time to deal with new situations. For example, if a dangerous situation arises, they are less likely to rush in it.
- Persistence: If a child continues with the activity though he finds it difficult he is said to be persistent. So it is the length of time he spends with that work though experiencing hurdles. Suppose, he has indulged in solving a puzzle, if he is not ready to give up and continues his efforts, it shows his persistency. This trait has other aspect also. If a child gets not ready easily to stop a particular work he has been asked to, he is said to be stubborn. Children with high persistency are more likely to achieve their goals. Less persistent child on the other hand can have more social skills as he realizes that other people also can help finishing a work.
- Mood: This trait refers to primary tendency to react to the situations negative or positive way. It is whether he sees glass half empty or half full. Does a child normally feel happy or stay serious? Does he show positive approach towards life or glass is half empty for him.